K. G. (Kevin) Jewell, John Gibbons, Janet Kathleen Cheney, and Ted Chiang at the "Mathematics, magic, and mystery" panel. The panel started out with a discussion of a book by the same name that explored mathematical "paradoxes" (many of them pretty simple and not paradoxical at all). But the larger purpose of the panel was to explore how mathematics influences science fiction. Apparently, there isn't much science fiction -- at least not very well known -- where the central idea is mathematical. Our panelists mentioned these works:
Fantasia Mathematica -- a compilation of math-inspired stories by various authors, 3 of them are about Mobius strip. It also contains poetry and other oddities.
Margaret Ball "Mathemagics", which started out as a short story and later became a novel. To be a wizard you have to be a very good mathematician.
A story (title unknown) in Greg Egan's collection Luminous there is a story about aliens in a different universe with different mathematics that intersects with ours in "computationally remote areas of the universe".